excrement n : waste matter (as urine or sweat but especially feces) discharged from the body [syn: body waste, excretion, excreta, excretory product]
- /'ɛkskɹəmənt/, 'ek-skr&-m&nt
- Any waste matter excreted from the human or animal body, or
discharged by bodily organs.
- 1603, John Florio, translating Michel de Montaigne, Essays,
Folio Society 2006, vol. 1 p. 97:
- A French Gentleman was ever wont to blow his nose in his hand [...]. He asked me on a time, what privilege this filthie excrement had, that wee should have a daintie linnen cloth or handkercher to receive the same.
- 1603, John Florio, translating Michel de Montaigne, Essays, Folio Society 2006, vol. 1 p. 97:
- In the context of "now|_|specifically": Animal solid waste excreted from the bowels; feces.
animal solid waste
- Bosnian: ekskrement , izmet
- Catalan: femta
- Chinese: 屎 (shǐ)
- Croatian: izmetine f, pl
- Czech: výkal
- Dutch: uitwerpselen n, pl
- Fijian: dā
- Finnish: lanta italbrac animal excrement, uloste italbrac human excrement
- Gamilaraay: guna
- German: Ausscheidungen f, pl, Kot
- Hungarian: ürülék
- Indonesian: tahi
- Korean: 똥 (ttong), (human euphemism) 뒤 (dwi)
- Maori: tūtae, hamuti, paru
- Pitjantjatjara: kuna
- Russian: кал (kal)
- Samoan: tae
- Warlpiri: kuna
Etymology 2From etyl la excrementum, from excrescere.
Excretion is the process of eliminating waste products of metabolism and other non-useful materials. It is an essential process in all forms of life. It contrasts secretion, where the substance may have specific tasks after leaving the cell.
In single-celled organisms, waste products are discharged directly through the surface of the cell. Multicellular organisms utilize more complex excretory methods. Higher plants eliminate gases through the stomata, or pores, on the surface of leaves. Animals have special excretory organs.
Human excretionIn humans, the two major excretory processes are the formation of urine in the kidneys and the formation of carbon dioxide (a human's abundant metabolic waste) molecules as a result of respiration, which is then exhaled from the lungs. These waste products are eliminated by urination and exhalation respectively. In urination, hormonal control over excretion occurs in the distal tubules of the kidneys as directed by the hypothalamus.
In kidneyIn humans the main organs of excretion are the kidneys and accessory urinary organs, through which urine is eliminated, and the large intestines, from which solid wastes are expelled. In strict biological terminology, the expulsion of feces is not considered to be excretion, since faeces is indigestible food, and not metabolic waste. The skin and lungs also have excretory functions: the skin eliminates water and salts in sweat, and the lungs expel water vapor and carbon dioxide.
Non-humanPlants have been shown (by British biologist Brian J. Ford) to translocate wastes into leaves which are then shed. In this fashion, the leaf, in addition to acting as an energy-trapping structure, is also a plant's organ of excretion.
Aquatic animals usually excrete ammonia directly into the external environment, as this compound has high solubility and there is ample water available for dilution. In terrestrial animals ammonia-like compounds are converted into other nitrogenous materials as there is less water in the environment and ammonia itself is toxic.
Birds excrete their nitrogenous wastes as uric acid in the form of a paste. This is metabolically more expensive, but allows more efficient water retention and it can be stored more easily in the egg. Many avian species, especially seabirds, can also excrete salt via specialized nasal salt glands, the saline solution leaving through nostrils in the beak.
Perspiration is another excretory process which removes salts and water from the body, although the primary purpose is cooling.
In insects, a system involving Malpighian tubules is utilized to excrete metabolic waste. Metabolic waste diffuses or is actively transported into the tubule, which transports the wastes to the intestines. The metabolic waste is then released from the body along with fecal matter.
EtymologyMany people misuse the term excretion as a euphemism for defecation, and use excrement for feces, but this is medically inexact.
excrement in Min Nan: Pâi-siat
excrement in Czech: Vylučování
excrement in German: Exkretion
excrement in Spanish: Excreción
excrement in Galician: Excreción
excrement in Indonesian: Ekskresi
excrement in Icelandic: Þveiti
excrement in Italian: Escrezione
excrement in Pampanga: Excretion
excrement in Macedonian: Екскреција
excrement in Malay (macrolanguage): Pengumuhan
excrement in Dutch: Excretie
excrement in Japanese: 排泄
excrement in Norwegian: Ekskresjon
excrement in Polish: Wydalanie
excrement in Portuguese: Excreção
excrement in Russian: Выделение
excrement in Slovak: Vylučovanie (zoológia)
excrement in Serbian: Систем за излучивање
excrement in Finnish: Erite
excrement in Swedish: Exkretion
excrement in Thai: การขับถ่าย
excrement in Ukrainian: Виділення
excrement in Chinese: 排泄作用
carrion, corruption, dandruff, decay, dejecta, dejection, dejecture, discharge, effluent, egesta, ejecta, ejectamenta, ejection, excreta, excretes, extravasate, extravasation, exudate, exudation, filth, foul matter, furfur, gangrene, mess, muck, mucus, obscenity, ordure, pus, putrid matter, rot, scurf, scuz, slime, smut, snot, sordes, transudate, transudation, waste, waste matter